The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
The Queensland Government will have the final say in assessing a major flood mitigation levee for Roma in the state's southern inland.
Residents in Tennant Creek say last weekend's rainfall was not recorded by the system that controversially replaced the local weather radar last year.
A deep low pressure system located over the Tasman Sea has whipped up wild winds and large waves in the past 24 hours, with maximum wave heights peaking at eight metres off the coast from Sydney.