The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Farmers across of Australia have been forced to cut areas of their cereal crops for wheaten hay, despite the product's lack of appeal on international markets.
Parts of coastal QLD received their heaviest October rain in five years.
Residents of Sunset Strip southeast of Broken Hill are gearing up to host the town's first open day this weekend, aimed at pitching the lakeside settlement to prospective home buyers.