The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Grantham flood inquiry: Three people missing after 2011 deluge in Queensland never found, commission hears
Three people who went missing during the deadly 2011 Grantham flood have never been found, an inquiry in Queensland has heard.
Emergency workers have launched another rescue operation for people stranded in heavy snow, this time for 10 people snowed in at Lake Dobson in Mount Field National Park, about 75 kilometres north-west of Hobart.
Drought concessional loan scheme to be re-opened within days, says Federal Government drought coordinator
A new "drought coordinator" working on the border of Victoria and South Australia, says the next round of drought concessional loans will be opened within days and funding boosts will be announced for a list of service providers.