The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Rivers down and cruises cancelled as Kakadu National Park swelters through one of its driest wet seasons on record
The World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park is suffering through one of its driest wet seasons on record.
A powerful band of severe thunderstorms swept through Townsville on Monday evening, with rain rates in excess of 100mm per hour.
After a brief monsoonal burst of rain at the beginning of January for central parts of the Northern Territory, the Top End continues to miss out on the heavy falls.