The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Strong winds are causing problems for residents and firefighters on the fire ground in South Australia's Mid North.
The Health Services Union is calling for an investigation into building standards at the Lismore Base Hospital on the NSW north coast after scaffolding collapsed onto the roof of the maternity ward during Sunday's storm.
The Victorian Government is assuring residents in the Wimmera and southern Mallee that more drought support will be made available early next year.