The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Rain in parts of western Queensland in the past week has raised hope that the drought may finally be over, but the long, dry years have already devastated pastures and wiped out incomes for many farming families.
Solid central Australian rain a bonus as pastoral company progresses with drought-proofing strategy aimed at selling heavier cattle
A Central Australian pastoral company says recent solid rain across its five cattle stations is a welcome bonus as it continues with a drought-proofing strategy.
Queensland's first cyclone of the season poses no immediate threat to the coast but may whip up dangerous swells for south-east beaches early next week, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) says.