NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Australia Day weather

16:14 EDT

Oppressive heat, elevated fire danger ratings, rain, thunderstorms and flooding are all on the forecast this Australia Day public holiday.

Fire and strong wind warnings still in place as a heatwave conditions ease across south-eastern states

15:54 EDT

Sweltering conditions have eased in Melbourne and much of South Australia, but a cool change "cannot come fast enough" for parts of south-east Australia still facing fire danger and soaring temperatures.

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