NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Storm hits Perth as ex-Tropical Cyclone Mangga delivers wild weather across WA, power cut to thousands

22:24 EST

A massive storm has wreaked havoc on southern coastal parts of Western Australia, including Perth, with thousands of homes without power, trees down and reports of widespread property damage.

Bushfire royal commission: 'Black Summer' played out exactly as scientists predicted it would

17:35 EST

The Bureau of Meteorology has told the royal commission into last summer's bushfires the season "played out" the way its forecasts said it would.

As it happened: Storm system from ex-Cyclone Mangga brings rain, hail and strong wind gusts to WA

17:24 EST

The unseasonal, once in a decade cyclone has combined with other cold fronts to carve a trail of devastation all down the West Australian coast.