NINO3.4 Index

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  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Monsoon rains trigger landslides and floods in India's Maharashtra state, leaving at least 112 dead

11:42 EST

At least 112 people have been killed in the western Indian state of Maharashtra by torrential monsoon rains that have caused landslides and flooded low-lying areas, cutting off hundreds of villages.

Winter delivering cold in South Australia

11:41 EST

South Australia has seen some cold temperatures over the past couple of days, with winter really living up to its expectations of freezing mornings and brisk days.

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