The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.
A neighbour alerted council to a large embankment wall being built at a quarry years before it was blamed by some locals for contributing to the deadly 2011 Grantham flood, an inquiry has been told.
Two central Victorian councils have raised concerns about a revised floodplain management strategy for the state.
Dungog Council is getting on with the job of building a replacement bridge for one in the tiny community of Torryburn that was washed away in recent floods.