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NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Cyclone Debbie reaches category four, thousands in low-lying Mackay areas told to leave

22:55 EDT

Tropical Cyclone Debbie has intensified to category four and is expected to hit the north Queensland coast on Tuesday morning, the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) has warned.

Cyclone Debbie: What to expect on Tuesday

21:20 EDT

After spending three days brewing over the Coral Sea, Severe Tropical Cyclone Debbie will make landfall tomorrow.

Cyclone Debbie: What to expect when you're evacuating

20:01 EDT

Evacuation centres are designed to be a safe place to wait out a cyclone ?? not be a home away from home.