NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Cyclone Veronica downgraded, homes evacuated as floodwaters rise near Port Hedland

18:25 EDT

The Army has evacuated homes in WA's north-west which have been cut off by rising floodwaters in the wake of ex-Tropical Cyclone Veronica, which has been downgraded to a low after lingering off the Pilbara coast.

Farmers call drought 'a natural disaster' as daily dust storms, gale-force winds strip farms bare

16:43 EDT

As gale-force winds create huge dust storms in Victoria's Central Gippsland, farmers say it is time to call the drought a natural disaster as the little remaining topsoil is blown away from paddocks.

Cyclone Veronica heralds baby boom in WA's Pilbara, with five bubs born in 24 hours

12:42 EDT

Five babies were born within 24 hours as severe Tropical Cyclone Veronica approached Western Australia's Pilbara coast, bringing destructive winds, torrential rainfall and mass flooding.