The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.
Gippsland farmers are learning how to be more climate resilient as part of the Southern Gippsland Agricultural Climate Resilience Project.
It has taken more than three decades, but racehorse trainer Ross Stitt has finally won the $25,000 Kempsey Cup in northern New South Wales.
Fresh haystacks are exploding into flames across Victoria and South Australia and experts are warning it could be the start of a disastrous season.