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NINO3.4 Index

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  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Western Queensland drought leaves graziers facing more impossible choices

18:11 EST

For the first time in four years western Queensland sheep grazier Peter Clark has lambs in his flock, but as drought maintains its stranglehold on the region he may still be forced into another heart-wrenching stock reduction.

Brisbane thawing out after cold start

16:38 EST

Brisbane is enjoying a warm day after its coldest morning in two years.

Waterspout rips through Perth suburb

12:21 EST

A waterspout rattled Perth's coastal suburb of Scarborough on Sunday, sending cars - and social media - into a spin.