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NINO3.4 Index

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  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Weather News

Fire danger rising as hot air spreads south

16:21 EDT

Soaring temperatures will elevate fire danger ratings across parts of southern Australia on Thursday and Friday.

'Our own personal cyclone' as severe thunderstorm rips through WA farming community of Cunderdin

15:33 EDT

Residents in Cunderdin have described a severe storm that tore through the region yesterday afternoon as "our own personal cyclone".

Prolonged heatwave on the horizon

12:09 EDT

Parts of southeastern Australia experienced a relatively mild start to the week, although a prolonged heatwave is about to grip multiple states and territories.