Fairfax Media Network

NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

Display Your Local Weather

Weather News

Trusting in science pays off for farmers reaping better than average after a dry start

16:44 EDT

Aside from dirt, there's probably just one thing the rolling green fields of France have in common with the sun-baked paddocks of Australia.

Desert frogs come alive in Red Centre's outback following a week of heavy rains

13:31 EDT

Following a week of wet weather, native desert frogs are out in full vocal force in parts of central Australia.

Eastern Australia's missing heat challenges records in Tasmania, Victoria

09:45 EDT

Australia's eastern seaboard is experiencing a notably cool November this year, while a spell of late-spring heat is challenging records in the nation's southeast.