The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.
People in the Top End have sweltered through one of the hottest wet seasons on record, and can now expect a warmer-than-usual dry season, a weather expert says.
Chilly mornings and late season rainfall across NSW is in stark contrast to most of autumn.
Low-interest loans may be difficult to access, but will also help people face some difficult truths, a rural accountant says.