The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.
Heatwave conditions have scorched southern Queensland today for a second time in just over a week, with paramedics preparing for another spike in heat-related cases.
Authorities are growing frustrated with people continuing to drive across fast-moving creek crossings, as hundreds of millimetres of rain swells river catchments across WA's north.
Being able to enjoy water sports on an outback cattle station is not something that happens very often, especially in the desert.