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NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Weather News

Victoria sweats through heatwave as bushfires ease

19:43 EDT

Victorians are being warned that there will be no respite from the heat overnight, Two fire emergency warnings have been downgraded to Watch and Act messages — one for a fire at Dreeit South, near Colac and another for people living in Mumbannar and Wanwin near the border of South Australia.

Four days of intense heat in western Sydney

17:28 EDT

Parts of western Sydney could experience their hottest four-day spell in more than 20 years between Friday and Monday.

SA heatwave forecast forces total fire bans, cancellation of TDU community challenge event

12:36 EDT

South Australia is facing two days of temperatures in the 40s, with total fire bans imposed for many parts of the state and the extreme weather forcing changes to the Tour Down Under cycling.