The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.
Two men stranded for nearly 24 hours with their sports car in deep snow at Mount Field, about 75 kilometres north-west of Hobart, have been rescued.
Rare snowfalls have blanketed the most unlikely parts of Tasmania, with farmers along the north-west coast waking up to white paddocks.
A former employee at the Grantham quarry has told the Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry that quarry waste was not used to build embankment walls around the site.