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NINO3.4 Index

  • index
  • SOI
  • NINO3.4

The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.

NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niño time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.

An El Niño or La Niña event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niño or -0.4°C for La Niña for at least 6 consecutive months.

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Weather News

Queensland braces for Tropical Cyclone Debbie

12:37 EDT

Tropical Cyclone Debbie is strengthening quickly on its journey to make landfall, likely between Lucinda and Proserpine on Monday or Tuesday.

Cyclone Debbie could hit north Queensland as category five, Bureau of Meteorology warns

12:09 EDT

A cyclone off northern Queensland could intensify to category five by the time it crosses the coast somewhere between Cardwell and Bowen, near Townsville, the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) has warned.

Category four cyclone possible for north Queensland as tropical low strengthens: BOM

11:00 EDT

A tropical low brewing 600 kilometres north-east of the Queensland coast could make landfall somewhere between Cairns and Townsville early next week as a category four cyclone or higher, the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) says.