The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
There has been a lot to celebrate this year in the macadamia industry - a record crop, good quality kernel, growing overseas demand and high prices.
Spring was marked by record breaking heat and long dry spells, with only small areas away from that norm.
The project to lift levee banks in the Wagga Wagga CBD to full flood protection has missed out on state government funding.