The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Grantham floods inquiry: Denis Wagner considers legal options after report finds quarry impact 'insignificant'
The former owner of the Grantham quarry is considering his legal options after an inquiry found it did not contribute to the town's deadly 2011 floods.
The Grantham Floods Commission of Inquiry has ruled the Grantham quarry played little role in the deadly 2011 flood and its owners were unjustly blamed.
The aurora australis has put on a colourful show over parts of southern Victoria and Tasmania overnight.