The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Perth has recorded its fourth consecutive day of temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius, equalling a record that has stood for more than 80 years, as a heatwave continues to grip the city.
Farm Management Deposits changes will give farmers chance to help themselves, once they have cash to spare
The Federal Government has introduced legislation to overhaul the Farm Management Deposits scheme, which it says will help farmers to help themselves.
The first ten days of February have set a new record for Hobart with each day breaking the 21 degree mark, although a series of fronts on the forecast will bring a cooler change.