The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Labor, Greens slam Agriculture White Paper for lack of strategic vision or climate change consideration
Prime Minister Tony Abbott says his government "wants to back people who are prepared to back themselves", and that a newly released vision for Australian agriculture will do just that.
The Federal Government has released the long awaited , which it had promised to deliver within 12 months of the 2013 election.
Farm groups have welcomed the Federal Government's plan for Australia's agricultural future, particularly tax reforms and changes to Farm Management Deposits (FMD).