The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
High winds described by the State Emergency Service as a "storm cell" have ripped through Somerton Park in Adelaide, damaging roofs and bringing down trees.
A "fairly active" cold front has caused problems on the road during Melbourne's evening peak hour, as high winds and rain hit the city.
A rare cloud formation, often called the morning glory, has rolled across outback Queensland delighting locals.