The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Agriculture white paper: Drought relief, dams key focus of Coalition's blueprint for rural Australia
More money for dams, extra drought relief and measures to boost the returns to farmers from sales at home and abroad are part of the Federal Government's long-awaited blueprint for agriculture.
Following a strong cold front which swept over southeastern parts of the nation yesterday, cool air settled under clear skies over parts of the sunshine state.
The Federal Government's White Paper on the Competitiveness of Australia's agriculture sector, to be released on the weekend, will drive long-term agricultural policies.