The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Adelaide's April 'warmwave' has seen only one day so far this month fail to hit 20 degrees Celsius â?? the first time that has happened in close to a century, the Bureau of Meteorology says.
The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is predicting above-average rainfall for Victoria's north over the next three months and a 50-50 chance of more rain in the south.
Farmer that Commonwealth concessional loans schemes were poorly designed and inconsistently managed, appear to be supported by a .