The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
The community of Borroloola has been physically split in half after heavy rainfall and flooding caused by ex-Tropical Cyclone Alfred partly collapsed a bridge.
Victoria told national energy operator 'under no circumstances' could it cut power during NSW heatwave
The Victorian Government has told the national energy operator "under no circumstances" could it cut power to regional centres in order to keep .
Tropical Cyclone Alfred has weakened to a tropical low as it nears landfall on the Gulf of Carpentaria's southern coast, but the Bureau of Meteorology warned the weather system remained powerful.