The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Grantham floods inquiry: Concerns raised about quarry wall years before 2011 flood, commission hears
The Grantham Floods Commission of Inquiry has been shown graphic vision of the Lockyer Creek breaking its banks upstream from the Grantham quarry during the deadly 2011 disaster.
For many across New South Wales, July has been a cold month and for the younger generation, many won't be able to remember a month so cold.
Melbourne is struggling through a July more typical of the mid 1900's.