The NINO3.4 index is one of several El Niņo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators based on sea surface temperatures.
NINO3.4 is the average sea surface temperature anomaly in the region bounded by 5°N to 5°S, from 170°W to 120°W. This region has large variability on El Niņo time scales, and is close to the region where changes in local sea-surface temperature are important for shifting the large region of rainfall typically located in the far western Pacific.
An El Niņo or La Niņa event is identified if the 5-month running-average of the NINO3.4 index exceeds +0.4°C for El Niņo or -0.4°C for La Niņa for at least 6 consecutive months.
Canberra has chilled below freezing every morning this month, and a few days have been quite cold as well.
Over the last week, much of the southeast has been treated to cold, cloud-free nights with light winds.
There have been a few hiccups along the way but the school garden at St Francis' Primary School in Hughenden continues to grow despite the on-going drought.